Frst, Let’s Fire all the managers

First Let’s Fire all the Managers

An article review


“First Let’s Fire all the Managers” is a interesting article  published in HBR based on a true management model which is successfully being practiced in a large food processing organization by the name of M/S Morning Star, the company started as a tomato trucking company.

The article is very exciting and very hard to believe that an organization is running without managers.

The only thing which has helped me in digesting the concept is that it is coming from a reputable business journal, the Harvard Business Review. The company Morning Star has been following this model since last two decades, so it must be working for them.

The concept originated by the founder of the company Chris Rufer; is simple, it is just that there is no Boss; all of the members of the organization are their own boss. Every individual work area is independent, responsible for meeting their targets which conform to the corporate target. Each individual is a profit center and is responsible to generate his/her profit as per the corporate requirement which at the end of the business cycle supports the bottom line. Every business area is allowed to incur the budgeted expenditures, can make the improvements in their process as they feel is required after consulting with the pre and post process owners. There is no concept of promotions, no fancy titles, accountability is at all levels, creativity is ample as all the members of the team are expected to create new ideas which improves the organization. Team and team players are a must.

Organizations that are setting up the hierarchical level with line and divisional managers are earning awesome value and profit. Today how much we learn about the successful companies of the world, they are almost the hierarchical based company. But, Morning Star has thought to enter the industry by using the manager-less concept. There are some of the causes of entering into this concept:

  • The cost of deploying managers in an organization is very costly. It additionally creates the hierarchy and the benefits and salary for them increases anonymously.
  • Decision making becomes slow: As the hierarchical level increases, manager’s eagerness to use the authority may delay the work flow process and slows down the decision making process.
  • Powerful managers even can make costly and devastating decision if the power is centered in one person.
  • Some time, the powerful managers can kill the important concept and ideas of the lower level employees.

An organization without boss becomes successful only when the employees of an organization are competent enough to face the challenge and bear the risk. It is not for those who are quiet pessimistic and like to work under direct guidance. Employees set their own goals to accomplish it. And for the resources needed to achieve those goals, they need not have to wait for the purchase officers’s decision.  Each and every person can purchase whatever they like that supports the individual/ organizational goals. So with this decision, employees are free to choose the sector in which they want to work for.

Although there is a minimal chance of arrising the conflict between the employees, there is also a solution for it. If the conflict appears between two parties within an organization, there is an independent body that helps in resolution of conflict. So it is resolved internally.

So, for the smart and deserving candidate who wants to be a leader and very eager to face the challenges. This type of organization is very much beneficial. It gives satisfaction at the workplace and increases delegation. But due to the lack of adoption capability, it is found that more than 50 % of the total workers leave the organization. Proper selection of the employees with proper guidance is seen very essential in this regards.

In the absence of a single rigid manager, everyone’s a manager. The job of managing includes planning, organizing, directing, staffing, and controlling, and everyone at Morning Star is expected to do all these things. Everyone is a manager of their own mission. They are managers of the agreements they make with colleagues, they are managers of the resources they need to get the job done, and they are managers who hold their colleagues accountable.”

Although the context of firing all the managers in each and every organization is almost impossible, the move taken by Morning Star is incredible. The organization and the human resource fit the modality. But it is very hard to find the competent and self motivated human resource in every context.


Cognitive Dissonance

Cognitive dissonance is the state of discomfortness that results from holding two conflicting beliefs. Cognitive dissonance can occur in many areas of life, but it is particularly evident in situations where an individual’s behavior conflicts with beliefs that are integral to his or her self-identity. In a state of dissonance, people may feel surprise, dread, guilt, anger, or embarrassment. For example, consider a situation in which a woman who values financial security is in a relationship with a man who is financially irresponsible.

The conflict:

  • It is important for her to be financially secure.
  • She is dating a man who is financially unstable.

In order to reduce this dissonance between belief and behavior, she can either leave the relationship or reduce her emphasis on financial security. In the case of the second option, dissonance could be further minimized by emphasizing the positive qualities of her significant other rather than focusing on his perceived flaws.

The other best example describing cognitive dissonance is the conflict between knowing smoking is injurious to health and the eagerness to smoke

Attribution Theory

Attribution theory is the way of viewing people and their behavior. It says that people associates their behavior either with internal or external (situational). We may me wondering or often ask question, why we sometimes fail the exam or sometimes arrive late at the classroom. Those activities or behavior are guided by internal or external attributes.

An important assumption of attribution theory is that people will interpret their environment in such a way as to maintain a positive self-image. That is, they will attribute their successes or failures to factors that will enable them to feel as good as possible about themselves. In general, this means that when learners succeed at an academic task, they are likely to want to attribute this success to their own efforts or abilities; but when they fail, they will want to attribute their failure to factors over which they have no control, such as bad teaching or bad luck.

According to attribution theory, the explanations that people tend to make to explain success or failure can be analyzed in terms of three sets of characteristics:

  • First, the cause of the success or failure may be internal or external. That is, we may succeed or fail because of factors that we believe have their origin within us or because of factors that originate in our environment.
  • Second, the cause of the success or failure may be either stable or unstable. If we believe cause is stable, and then the outcome is likely to be the same if we perform the same behavior on another occasion. If it is unstable, the outcome is likely to be different on another occasion.
  • Third, the cause of the success or failure may be either controllable or uncontrollable. A controllable factor is one which we believe we ourselves can alter if we wish to do so. An uncontrollable factor is one that we do not believe we can easily alter.

Bhopal gas was a great and so sorrowful disaster to kill more than 27000 lifes. So with this background, i have presented the critical analysis of the article “bhopal gas tragedy”.

Please click the following link to download the file and click on the download buttom.

Thank You

Role of feedback in communication

Role of feedback in communication

Communication is the exchange and flow of information and ideas from one person to another. It involves a sender transmitting an idea, information, or feeling to a receiver. Effective communication occurs only if the receiver understands the exact information or idea that the sender intended to transmit.

The communication has a vicious cycle which continues even after sending message to the respondents. The audience or the respondents may or get the same intended message as the speaker intends to send. This cycle ends only when they share their understandings and comments to the speaker about what they have understood. This process is called feedback.

Feedback is essential in communication so as to know whether the recipient has understood the message in the same terms as intended by the sender and whether he agrees to that message or not. Receivers are not just passive absorbers of messages. They receive the message and respond to about the subject matter about what they have understood. This response of a receiver to sender’s message is called Feedback. Sometimes a feedback could be a non-verbal, smiles, sighs and other times, it is oral. It can also be written like replying to an e-mail, etc.

Feedback also enables us to evaluate the effectiveness of our message. It makes communication meaningful. It is the end-result of an idea and makes communication a continuous process. If our audience doesn’t understand what we mean, we can tell by the response and then refine the message accordingly. Giving our audience a chance to provide feedback is crucial for maintaining an open communication climate. The speaker must create an environment that encourages feedback. For example after explaining the job to the subordinated he must ask them whether they have understood it or not. He should ask questions like “Do you understand?”, “Do you have any doubts?” etc. At the same time he must allow his subordinated to express their views also.

Feedback has a great role in the organizational point of view also. There are lots of ways in which company takes feedback from their employees, such as: Employee surveys, memos, emails, open-door policies, company news letter etc. Employees are not always willing to provide feedback. The organization has to work a lot to get the accurate feedback. The managers should encourage feedback by asking specific questions, allowing their employees to express general views, etc. The organization should be receptive to their employee’s feedback.

Static communication creates a vacuum. The speaker assumes the message is received but has no feedback from the listener. This lack of feedback means the speaker fails to modify the message to help the listener better understands the speaker’s attitude and position. When businesses fail to create open feedback channels, they operate in a communication vacuum. Management and owners can’t improve their messages to employees, and workers aren’t able to ask questions about operations or make suggestions for business improvement.

In general, we can quantify the following importance of feedback in communication, either in a formal or informal setting.

1. It completes the whole process of communication and makes it continuous.

2. It sustains communication process

3. It makes one know if one is really communication or making sense

4. It is a basis for measuring the effectiveness of communication

5. It is a good basis for planning on what next to be done especially statistical report

6. Communication will be useless without feedback

7. Feedback paves way for new idea generation

The basis being established here is that, feedback is the livewire of communication as communication is the livewire of human existence and interaction. The process of communication finishes only when the vicious cycle ends up with feedback. Thus, feedback should be carefully considered before being put forward due to its significance.


  1. H. Leavitt and R. Mueller. “Some Effects of Feedback o Communication.” Human Relations 4, 1951, pp. 401-41

movie review of “chakde India”

Background of the Movie

Chak De India is a 2007 Bollywood movie produced under the banner of Yash Chopda. The story in the movie goes side by side with the Indian hockey team and the mental aspect arisen between the players, coach and the audience. Sharukh Khan is in the lead role in the movie who is a player and a coach of the female hocky team. Khan was the captain of the Indian hockey team when they lose the final match against the Pakistan. When various questions were raised against him after Pakistan won the match, he was under the shadow for seven years. And finally he came in the main stream as a coach of female hockey team to erect the mistake he had made earlier and to drive the Indian hockey team to a paramount.

Chakde India is a social movie that comprises the entire human and the behavioral aspect of the human beings. The human attributes like motivation, perception, leadership, psychology, and team dynamics are clearly and explicitly presented in the movie. In this regard, we can call ‘chakde India” as a behavioral movie.

The movie starts with the hockey final match between India and Pakistan. Indian captain Shahrukh Khan misses the penalty and looses the match. After the completion of the match, the handshake between the players misinterpreted by the media and the public which costs him a lot, his career, pride and a lot more. He becomes passive for 7 years. And when he returns back, he comes with an enthusiasm to erase his dishonor and to uplift the Indian Hockey team.

Behavioural Aspect of the movie

The movie Chak De India is organizational behavior put in practice. It consists of the organizational behavior topics like leadership, team formation, norming and storming of team work, group dynamics, personality, motivation, etc. All these concepts are presented with the parallel story of Indian female hockey team.

The most important aspect of the movie is team building process. The players from various states with different ethnic background, language, culture, personality and attitudes come upon a team to play together with a common goal i.e to play for the country. It also showed that goal can be easily achieved if they work on the team with the shared values and motives. In the movie, comparatively a weaker team went up to the hockey finals and won against the strong team Australia.

The movie also shows the role of an effective leader to inspire and motivate the team fo find out an extraordinary results. To find the goal, right person should be placed in the right place at the right time by knowing the individual difference. Organizational goal must be synchronized with the personal goal in order to increase the efficiency. All these traits of leadership are beautifully presented in the movie from the leadership lesson of the main character Salim Khan. Continue reading

Review of monetary policy of Nepal Rastra Bank NRB

following is the link to download the file of monetary policy review aof nepal rastra bank. download and enjoy it……..