Nepal Graduating from LDC

Nepal is among the group of 48 least developed countries of the world. During the formulation of three category nations (developed, developing and LDC) made in 1971, there were only 25 member tagged as the “Least Developed Countries”. But only 4 member nations graduated to the developing nation status and another 27 nations joined the club over the last four and half decades. Today, the UN Agency aims to reduce the number of LDCs from 48 to 24 by 2020. As poverty, inequality and underdevelopment anywhere are a threat to prosperity, the agenda of graduating as many LDCs as possible to developing country status has become a shared concern of all.

Nepal soon to be promoted to Developing Nation

Nepal soon to be promoted to Developing Nation

Nepal had made a vision to put a tagline of “developing nation” by the end of 2022 in the current 3 years plan. Different calculations show that Nepal had met two of the three goals, which are enough for the country to move from the league of least developed countries to that of developing nations. Continue reading

A journey from Kathmandu to Dustmandu

dust particles in the road

Dusty roads in Kathmandu

Kathmandu: Capital city of Nepal and also known as the city of Temple is gradually losing its status these days. With the human civilization, the capital city’s beauty has entered into the phase of retrogression. As the number of peoples grew, the infrastructures of building and roads has built in such a manner that it needs Google to find the free land now. Common properties such as temples, rivers and park become victim of people and their status is depreciating each day.

Kathmandu is the heart of more than 30 lakhs population searching for their status. There are three types of people in Kathmandu:

  1. Those who have lost their status
  2. Those who are in search of their status and
  3. Those who are maintaining their status. Continue reading

A dream of Nepalese Cricket

Nepal Cricket on rise

The bright future of Nepali Cricket

It has been 4 years since Nepal is in number one position in ICC cricket ranking. With 5 players in the top 10 ICC player ranking, Nepal has stood this position consecutively for four years. Different cricket expert mentions that now it’s almost impossible for rest of the world to defeat Nepal in international cricket match. History tells that Nepal is famous for its bravery as “Bir Gorkhali”, but new history has been created. Nepali is world famous for Cricket as well. Apart from RBC, WBC and platelets, a new component has been added in the Nepalese blood, i.e. “cricket”.

I was regretting myself to awake from the dream. But from the next outlook, I thanked myself that, yes, it is the next target for Nepal. Playing in the world cup used to be the dream for Nepalese cricket team. More importantly, watching live cricket world cup by supporting Nepalese team used to be myth for Nepalese cricket fans. We used to wish that what if Nepal would play the world cup and keep all the thread of hope within our mind.
Today, the dream comes true. Nepal has opened the door of cricket world cup. Now we should not ask any friend that which team you are supporting in this world cup. There would not be any clash among Nepalese regarding cricket supporters because all the Nepalese would be supporting Nepalese cricket.
Today Indians are claiming that Sachin Tendulkar is the god of Cricket. But they never know that, there are thousands of gods in this holy place to claim that I am the god of cricket. They have started to show the god characteristics today in their infant age. But think of their immense characters when they become matured. All the peoples in the world will be prayers and the Nepalese peoples will be the god of cricket.
Gautam Buddha was born in Nepal, Araniko was born in Nepal, Sita was born in Nepal. A major portion among 33million god was born in Nepal. The world knows this truth. But they are yet unaware about another fact that there are more thousands of cricket gods who are borned in this holy place “Nepal”
Jai Nepal
Jai Cricket

Performance of Nepalese Economy

Nepalese Economic growth under limit

Nepalese Economic growth under limit

With the end of every fiscal year, past performance is evaluated and new strategies are developed according. Few days earlier, fiscal year 2069/70 has been finished and the analysis of annual economy’s performance started. The performance of the last fiscal year 2069/70 does not seems to be satisfactory. Trade deficit, inflation and low economic growth have seen as the major challenge for the country.
The government had expected to have an economic growth of 5.5%, but in actuality, growth has stuck on only 3.6%. The production in agricultural goods has been decreased by 3.7% this year while the expansion on non agriculture increased by 4.98%. The Gross Development Product (GDP) of the country has been increased from 15.36 kharba to 17.01 kharba. It seems that the country is in a way of sluggish improvement. Continue reading

Havoc of bird flu in poultry farm industry of Nepal

the havoc of birdflu in nepal

Health officers destroying chickens as a means of controlling bird flu

Man bahadur Khatri has returned back from Malaysia by earning more than 1 crore in 4 years. He decided to invest his earning in such sector that maximizes the return in minimum effort. After carefully analyzing the industries in Nepal, he found poultry farm business as the right one and invested the whole earnings of his life. He took the land of Suryabinayak, Bhaktapur on lease and started his business. All the things were going as per the plan for 6 months, but suddenly his business took a new direction as the chickens started to die. The reason of turning effect is the viral disease “Bird flu”.

The multibillionaire poultry business of Nepal is really in great threat these days. The havoc in this industry is caused by none other than the viral disease, bird flu. This is not the first time this viral disease has seen in Nepal. Bird flu was first seen in Hetauda in 2065 BS. Till now, it is seen 106 times in whole Nepal and 36 times in Kathmandu valley only.

After the chickens started to get infected and die suddenly, the entrepreneurs of this sectors are really in trouble these days. Officials told that, the nature of virus (H5N1) has changed it’s nature. Earlier, bird flu used to be seen in the winter season only, but it has increased its resistivity and started to flourish in the summer season too. With this rumor, there is a big question of poultry farm business in Nepal. Continue reading

Where is Nepal heading?

Where is nepal heading?

Where is nepal heading?

Each individual, since their school class, are taught that Nepal has got the highest potential of economic growth that may easily reach double digit. The huge water resource, natural gift of mountain, river, topographic structure, adventure destinations and hospitality is really the best in this whole world. If only 1/3 of this resource is utilized properly, Nepal could easily reach the path of success.

This has been the story ever since we were reading in class five and no sign of improvement is seen till now. 13 years has been passed, and more than 10 prime minister have already migrated to Baluwatar. But, none of them succeeded to show the path of economic growth to Nepal. Even the situation has more worsened. Nepal has been relegated from developing country to least developed country and the nation has started to depend fully upon the remittance economy. What other could be the factor of shame rather than the act of remittance driven economy. Continue reading

Dark side of water resource

When the calendar turns from jestha to ashad, some people seeks the number of holiday while others construct new aspiration for

Rainfall in Nepal

Rainfall in Nepal

the new month. But at the same time, the new month creates havoc for the people living near the territory of greatest rivers of Nepal, especially Koshi, Narayani and Mahakali. The river becomes crazy and starts to flow haphazardly towards the residential area near the coastal region.

Each year, the rivers destruct the life and property of people. Various media broadcast their tears to the public through different media and the government allocates small fund to calm down the issue. And again, each year, government constructs high level commission to find out the root cause of destruction. The committee prepares the report and submits the detailed bulky file to the government. Yet, the government is not interested in implementing the findings. All the parties (victim, government, layman, and other stakeholders) know the solution of the problem. Nevertheless, this has become a routine of our country Nepal. Continue reading

Loadsheding in Nepal

Nepal is in its critical phase due to the power shortage. Currently, country is facing the bitter taste of 14 hours of loadsheding.

Loadsheding in nepal

Loadsheding in Neapl

Authority says that the period may extend upto 20 hours of power shortage. that means out of 24 hours, nepalese people will see the light only for 4 hours a day. You can just imagine its effect on daily activities of the people. Except the candle industry, increasing loadsheding has an adverse effect on each and every sectors of the country. The consequences of increasing loadsheding are described as below:

1. Due to the power shortage, industries have to use other alternatives of power which has high cost. so the cost of prod
uction of goods and services will definitely goes up. As a result, inflation will occur

2. The educational status of the country will also goes down. Students cant read write in the night time. As a result, they becomes lazy and neither teachers, nor parents can be accountable on such paradigm.

3. There in more chance of insecurity due to increasing loadsheding. The street lamps can’t burn at night time. So the activities like thieve, rape and kidnap will go up. The business will close early evening and the roads gets empty in the early evening. Continue reading

Brand Attributes of Ncell

Brand Identity

Brand Identity is all about creating distinct image in customers mind. Ncell too have tries to create distinct image on customers mind. The slogan of Ncell “Ncell Nepal kai Lagi”, is one of its step towards creating unique identity in present cut- throat competitive telecom market. The slogan itself has tried to build unique identity by eliciting personal attachment to Nepalese customers. Likewise, Ncell has developed its brand identity through brand symbol in the shape of a hi-tech stone in rich purple color. Whenever we talk about Ncell the purple colors comes to our mind that is unique identity created by Ncell.

Brand Image

Ncell enter to the market as a first private mobile operator in Nepal offering its services under the brand Mero Mobile, from that time being it has develop positive image on customers mind.
The Ncell brand came up under the common brand image of the TeliaSonera companies. So it was key advantage for Ncell to have preoccupied brand image of TeliaSonera in international market. To have positive brand image the product should have three main criteria like strong, favorable and uniqueness. Ncell is found to be competent all these respect. The customers have been highly delighted from its continuous quality services. Before the introduction of Ncell in the Telecom industry the customers were compelled suffer the poor service quality delivered by leading mobile operator NTC. The Ncell’s corporate values which are: being a pioneer in the market, reliability, agility in response to the market’s and consumers’ needs, social responsibility, and a deep and abiding aspiration to be an integral part of the country. Likewise, it has created uniqueness through the introduction of those services which were not been experienced in Nepal. For example, Ncell introduced itself as the first private telecommunication company to provide GSM service in Nepal.

Brand Differentiation

Ncell claimed that they have clear network. Customers also perceive Ncell network as reliable. Ncell has been able to differentiate it from NTC by positioning itself as superior network quality. Now NTC users also subscribe Ncell services for backup purpose. Likewise, people also differentia Ncell from other as a brand having unique services which are still not been provided by other companies.

Brand Objectives

Ncell Nepal’s main objectives are:

  • Ncell has been introduced mainly with the objective of breaking monopoly held by the state-owned Telecommunication Nepal Telecom.
  • To be forward among the telecommunications company providing the best services.

 

Brand Elements

Brand elements are those attributes of a brand or product that uniquely distinguish the brand from other brands. Ncell too have its several brand elements that has help it to make it unique as compare to other brands. Some its key brand elements are:

Brand Name

Ncell is an excellent example of re-branding in Nepalese business arena. Initially it came up with brand name “Mero Mobile”. Later after 2010 it came up with new brand name Ncell.  The word Ncell compromises of two words N- cell, the letter “N” stands for Nepal and cell stands for simply phone.

Logos

Hi-tech stone in rich purple color is its present corporate logo. This Hi-stone reflects the strong connectivity. The logo that has been used by Ncell in Nepal is the same logo used by its parent company TeliaSonera.

Color

Ncell’s purple corporate color is very well-known in Nepalese Corporate sector. The purple color is energizing and inspiring, it reflects the creativity, passion and reliability with which Ncell will continue to serve its customers. This can be taken as one of the excellent example of company trying to create brand identity through its corporate color in Nepal.

Sound

The music/sound used in Ncell TV, Radio advertisement is catchy and touching so that customers easily recognize or recall the brand whenever they heard it in TV or Radio advertisement.

Conflict Management Techniques

A conflict is a common phenomenon in the workplace. It is also seen as an important aspect of the workplace. A conflict is a situation when the interests, needs, goals or values of involved parties interfere with one another. Different stakeholders may have different priorities. Conflicts may involve team members, departments, projects, organization and client, boss and subordinate, organization needs vs. personal needs. Often, a conflict is a result of perception. Is conflict a bad thing? Not necessarily. Often, a conflict presents opportunities for improvement. Therefore, it is important to understand (and apply) various conflict resolution techniques.

Forcing

Also known as competing. An individual firmly pursues his or her own concerns despite the resistance of the other person. This may involve pushing one viewpoint at the expense of another or maintaining firm resistance to another person’s actions.

Examples of when forcing may be appropriate

  • In certain situations when all other, less forceful methods, don’t work or are ineffective
  • When you need to stand up for your own rights, resist aggression and pressure
  • When a quick resolution is required and using force is justified (e.g. in a life-threatening situation, to stop an aggression)
  • As a last resort to resolve a long-lasting conflict

Possible advantages of forcing:

  • May provide a quick resolution to a conflict
  • Increases self-esteem and draws respect when firm resistance or actions were a response to an aggression or hostility

Win-Win (Collaborating)

Also known as problem confronting or problem solving. Collaboration involves an attempt to work with the other person to find a win-win solution to the problem in hand – the one that most satisfies the concerns of both parties. The win-win approach sees conflict resolution as an opportunity to come to a mutually beneficial result. It includes identifying the underlying concerns of the opponents and finding an alternative which meets each party’s concerns.

Examples of when collaborating may be appropriate: Continue reading

Corporate Governance

Corporate governance is a term that refers broadly to the rules, processes, or laws by which businesses are operated, regulated, and controlled. . They provide the guidelines as to how the company can be directed or controlled such that it can fulfil its goals and objectives in a manner that adds to the value of the company The term can refer to internal factors defined by the officers, stockholders or constitution of a corporation, as well as to external forces such as consumer groups, clients, and government regulations.

Well-defined and enforced corporate governance provides a structure that, at least in theory, works for the benefit of everyone concerned by ensuring that the enterprise adheres to accepted ethical standards and best practices as well as to formal laws. To that end, organizations have been formed at the regional, national, and global levels.

In recent years, corporate governance has received increased attention because of high-profile scandals involving abuse of corporate power and, in some cases, alleged criminal activity by corporate officers. An integral part of an effective corporate governance regime includes provisions for civil or criminal prosecution of individuals who conduct unethical or illegal acts in the name of the enterprise.

Emotional Intelligence


Emotional intelligence (EI) refers to the ability to perceive, control and evaluate emotions. It the subset of social intelligence that involves the ability to monitor one’s own and others’ feelings and emotions, to discriminate among them and to use this information to guide one’s thinking and actions. Some researchers suggest that emotional intelligence can be learned and strengthened, while others claim it is an inborn characteristic.

The Four Branches of Emotional Intelligence

Salovey and Mayer proposed a model that identified four different factors of emotional intelligence: the perception of emotion, the ability reason using emotions, the ability to understand emotion and the ability to manage emotions.

1.     Perceiving Emotions: The first step in understanding emotions is to accurately perceive them. In many cases, this might involve understanding nonverbal signals such as body language and facial expressions.

2.     Reasoning With Emotions: The next step involves using emotions to promote thinking and cognitive activity. Emotions help prioritize what we pay attention and react to; we respond emotionally to things that garner our attention.

3.     Understanding Emotions: The emotions that we perceive can carry a wide variety of meanings. If someone is expressing angry emotions, the observer must interpret the cause of their anger and what it might mean. For example, if your boss is acting angry, it might mean that he is dissatisfied with your work; or it could be because he got a speeding ticket on his way to work that morning or that he’s been fighting with his wife.

4.     Managing Emotions: The ability to manage emotions effectively is a key part of emotional intelligence. Regulating emotions, responding appropriately and responding to the emotions of others are all important aspect of emotional management.

Knowledge Management: an emerging management concept

Knowledge Management is a process that helps organizations identify, select, organize, disseminate and transfer important information and expertise that are a part of the organizational memory that typically resides within an organization in an unstructured manner. It is also treated as the knowledge warehouse. This enables effective and efficient problem solving, dynamic learning, strategic planning and decision making. Knowledge management focuses on identifying knowledge, explicating it in a way so that it can be shared in a formal manner, and thus reusing it.

Knowledge management enables the communication of knowledge from one person to another so that it can be used by the other person. It covers a wide range of areas that can be practiced within an organization. The fields in which knowledge concepts are deployed in organization through knowledge initiatives are:

·          sharing knowledge and best practices

·          instilling responsibility for sharing knowledge

·          capturing and reusing best practices

·          embedding knowledge in products , services and processes

·          producing knowledge as a product

·          driving knowledge generation for innovation

·          mapping networks of experts

·          building and mining customer knowledge bases

 

Goals and Objectives of Knowledge Management

The aim of knowledge management is to continuously improve an organization’s performance through the improvement and sharing of organizational knowledge throughout the organization (i.e., the aim is to ensure the organization has the right knowledge at the right time and place). Knowledge management is the set of proactive activities to support an organization in creating, assimilating, disseminating, and applying its knowledge. Knowledge management is a continuous process to understand the organization’s knowledge needs, the location of the knowledge, and how to improve the knowledge.

Broadly, we can put classify the goal of knowledge management into four different aspects.

·        create knowledge repository

·        improve knowledge assets

·        enhance the knowledge environment

·        manage knowledge as an asset

Knowledge Management Activities

Knowledge management consists of four basic functions: externalization, internalization, intermediation and cognition (Frappaolo, 1998):

Externalization:Externalization is capturing knowledge in an external repository and organizing it by some framework in an effort to discover similar knowledge. Technologies that support externalization are imaging systems, databases, workflow technologies, document management systems using clustering techniques, etc.

Internalization: Internalization is the process of identifying knowledge, usually explicit, relevant to a particular user’s needs. It involves mapping a particular problem, situation, or a point of interest against the body of knowledge already captured through externalization.

Intermediation: Intermediation  is similar to the brokering process for matching a knowledge seeker with the best source of knowledge (usually tacit) by tracking the experience and interest of individuals and groups of individuals. Some technologies that facilitate these processes are groupware, intranets, workflow and document management systems.

Cognition: Cognition  applies the knowledge exchanged preceding three processes. This is probably the knowledge management component that is most difficult to automate because it relies on human cognition to recognize where and how knowledge can be used.

In order to manage knowledge effectively in organizations, besides other factors, special attention should be given to contextual dimensions of organization such as strategy, technology and culture, that is:

·        Most important is building a strong culture to adopt and support it.

·        Defining effective strategies for using all knowledge resources efficiently.

·        Using information technologies (digital documents, intranets, expert systems etc) for developing knowledge management systems.

IS OB a common sense?

Organizational Behavior Is Not Simply Common Sense

In some ways, organizational behavior is taken as a common sense. The motivation, control, teamwork seems to be a common sense in some ways. But it is more than just the common sense when it comes to the structuring of a whole organization with so many different people, and learning styles, and also the common goals and mission of the organization.
It almost becomes a management science. And it has to be treated as such. Also, the OB will have to be a little more human than plain pure hard science, which is why it cannot be treated as all fact.

Many organizations survive on the edge and the directors as well as staff think on feet to accomplish what in all good conscience they have to for upholding their companies’ agenda.
There are many books which discuss all this, in detail and there are always ideas that can help improve the work that organizations pride themselves in rendering.

Organizational behavior is a very inter disciplinary field from economics to management and even to ethics of running a corporation. The curriculum OB course include case studies from various corporations. And that provides a good sense of organizational behavior to the students at college and graduate levels.

In that sense, OB can be taught in a field work manner as well, where multiple fields come together.

So it can simply be said that OB is more than a common sense.

Traffic Problem in New Baneshwor


CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

New Baneshwor is one of the major junctions and also known as the heart of the Kathmandu Valley. This place consists of all the major educational institution, hospitals, a wide range of market, and most important, “constitutional assembly” of the country. So it is one of the busiest places of Kathmandu valley. The vehicle in the road always seems to be crowded and the volume is higher in the peak hour. As a result, there is a high traffic jam and the vehicle needs a long period of time to cross this spot. Motor bikes are always in a hurry to overtake and sometimes they even capture the footpath designed for pedestrians. It is always hard to cross the road in this area and sometimes it takes more than 5 minutes. Traffic police always seems busy in managing the flow of vehicles. Although there are more number of traffic police deployed, road accidents are also frequently occurring in this area.

Road is the common place of all the people. All the people can exercise equal right and has equal responsibility upon it. It is a myth that there is a severe traffic problem in New Baneshwor. It can be clearly seen by different consequences like a huge number of peoples crossing the road and a long queue of vehicles waiting to pass the point. The narrow road, unmanaged parking and footpath business, and the absence of Sky Bridge are some of the reasons unmanaged traffic in New Baneshwor. This section of study tries to find out the problem and respective solution of traffic problem from three different perspectives. Different ideas of problems and solutions of traffic are collected from these three different angles and a combined view is developed.

1.1 Background of study

It was the time when I was returning back to home from my college, the time was already 6:50. Since I live in Minbhawan, I have to pass New Baneshwor chowk to reach that point. I felt a sense of inconvenience by the unmanaged footpath business which made me difficult to walk. When I reached new Baneshwor Chowk, the situation was much more miserable. There was intense flow of traffic on the road with annoying horns. Vehicles were seemed to be in hurry and were trying to overtake each other. On the other hand, there were more than 200 peoples on each side of the road waiting for the signal of police officer to cross the road. Since I was with my friends, we talked on the same issue of traffic jams in this spot. And when the traffic police signaled to cross the road, there was a flow of peoples on the road.

This picture was imprisoned in my mind till night. Then I thought of why not to make a small study revealing the problems of New Baneshwor that induce traffic jam. Then I tried to collect the problems and recommendations from three different angles of pedestrians, passengers or vehicles owners and police officer. So this report is the blend of view of different angles of traffic jam of New Baneshwor. Continue reading

Environmental Analysis of Ncell

Assessment of External Environment

Forces and condition outside the organization that affects the performance and outcome of the business organization is the External environment of the business organization. The control of external environmental factors is out of the hand of business organization. Analysis of external environment depicts the opportunities and threats to business organization. External environment consist of different factors such as political, economic, socio-cultural, technological, legal and environmental. In short we can say as PESTLE Analysis

Political Analysis

Politically, it will not be wrong to say that Nepal is in the state of the transition phase. So the political instability seems to be normal during this period. All the sectors in the economy are more or less affected by it, and Ncell also can’t remain unaffected. The major areas that are affected by the political system is in terms of new investment and direct restriction of the authority body.NTA is the regulating body of telecommunication sector in the country. Since the largest telecommunication house, NTC is state owned body; NTA always makes laws in favor of NTC. Due to this factor, private sector like Ncell is facing the trouble of game of politics. The most relevant example is the price factor. Although Ncell is trying to reduce the service tariff, it is unable to reduce due to the restrictions made by NTA. Apart from that, unclear rules and regulations and the less reactive bureaucrats is also the political problem for Ncell. For example, due to the unclear government policy, Ncell is forced to keep its highly precious machines in the duty office Tatopani since 4 months.

Economic Analysis

Although the economy in the world is shrinking, the disposable income of the people in Nepal is increasing. The inflow of remittance in the country is directly helping in this prospect. The number of people using the cellular mobile phone is increasing day by day. Furthermore, the inflow of Chinese mobile phones at the low cost is also helping people to enjoy the services of mobile technology. Hence in Nepal, the economic environment seems to be favorable. Continue reading

SWOT Analysis of Ncell

SWOT Analysis:

Strength

a.       Part of TeliaSonera: TeliaSonera holds about 80% shares of Ncell. It is a strong and competitive group, which has high pool of resources. Ncell gains a lot of advantage from the parent company in terms of knowledge/technology sharing, fully leveraging benefits of scale and synergy through business strategy and network building techniques.

b.      Largest market share: Ncell is the largest telecom service provider (GSM), having 43% market share. It has crossed more than 80 lakhs customer. Besides, it is also a leading ISP in Nepal.

c.       Strong Distribution Network: With the equal distribution of customer all over Nepal, it has established 14 Ncell centre in the major cities of the country that gives full phase customer service. Besides, there are hundreds of Ncell shops all over the country.

d.      Brand Identity: Strong advertisements and promotions of Ncell are one of its biggest strength. It has ample resources to invest in its branding. Every new scheme it offers increases the sales of Ncell. Thus, it is a strong brand identity. Today, from a 10-year-old child to 70-year-old grand-papa; everyone is aware of the brand “Ncell”, especially with the purple color.

e.       Highly Skilled human resource: The ability to attract the best talent in the market & to retain it has become one of the key factors of Ncell’s success. Currently Ncell have an efficient manpower of more than 500 employees.

f.       Innovation: Innovation is another strong aspect of Ncell. It has been growing itself and always succeeded to bring new and innovative product to the markets for its consumers. Ncell connect is once such innovative product introduced by Ncell.

g.      Strong R&D: Ncell has built on its R&D under TeliaSonera. R&D technology centers of TeliaSonera in various parts of the world have highly qualified scientists and technologists. With the strong support from TeliaSonera R&D as well as the brand development capabilities, the company is well placed to meet the challenges arising from the increased competition intensity.

Weakness

a.       High Advertising Costs: Ncell is been paying high cost for its advertising agency. There is a significant increase in the advertising budget. Continue reading

Changing Organizational Structure in 21st Century

“Organizational structure” refers to the formal and informal patterns of relationships by which an institution organizes work and distributes power. The bureaucratic structure is rigid, hierarchical, and segmented. It also dilutes individual responsibility. The net effect is insufficient responsiveness to citizen concerns and costly inefficiencies arising from excessive controls that ultimately fail to provide accountability to the public for achieving results. Whereas, some modern and adoptive organizations are changing to flat and has got a wide span of control.

Organizations should work through the following agents to exercise the change.

  • Organize work around results that customers consider valuable.
  • Shift accountability from the use of rigid, centralized management control systems to a reliance on quasi-market techniques, such as competition among providers, and concentrate on high-quality results.
  • Create partnerships within and between agencies, and create flexible relationships to increase the focus on serving customer needs.
  • Empower employees with the authority, skills, and information required to do their jobs, and redefine managers’ role to that of team leader, coach, or facilitator.

The strategies for change

There are basically four strategies to make a change in the organizational structure

  1. Streamline Structures

The first strategy is to delayer headquarters and streamline field structures. This approach targets administrative costs and positions. Therefore, careful study is needed to ensure closures contribute to improved service delivery, not just cost savings. Each agency must make its own administrative reduction decisions based on its knowledge of mission and priorities.

  1. Reengineer Work Processes

This strategy, which often is referred to as “starting over,” calls for beginning with a blank sheet of paper and then designing the optimal way to perform a necessary process, regardless of the pre- existing system. The process often produces radical change, with functions eliminated or redesigned. Private sector experience indicates that reengineering can sharply reduce internal processes and generate significant change. Federal experience, such as at the Defense Department and Internal Revenue Service (IRS), suggests great potential for improving performance and reducing costs.

  1. Create Boundary-Crossing Partnerships

Real life needs do not always conform to the existing bureaucratic design of a program. Citizens often need services from more than one department at a time. Problems such as unemployment, crime, the environment, workforce training, and natural disaster relief demand a multi-department response. Cross-boundary partnerships are essential to helping the government address complex problems in a comprehensive fashion without adding programs or creating agencies.

  1. Create Self-Managing Work Teams

In growing numbers of corporations, work teams have replaced traditional management, often dramatically increasing productivity and enhancing the quality of work life for employees. Not all teams are alike in the responsibility and accountability they possess. But highly developed teams control functions once reserved for management: hiring, firing, and promoting; designing work processes; establishing production schedules; setting goals and performance measures; and maintaining quality control.

Review of monetary policy of Nepal Rastra Bank NRB

following is the link to download the file of monetary policy review aof nepal rastra bank. download and enjoy it……..

thanks..

http://www.mediafire.com/file/lkdjuhb7motsvd8/monetary_policy_final.docx