A conflict is a common phenomenon in the workplace. It is also seen as an important aspect of the workplace. A conflict is a situation when the interests, needs, goals or values of involved parties interfere with one another. Different stakeholders may have different priorities. Conflicts may involve team members, departments, projects, organization and client, boss and subordinate, organization needs vs. personal needs. Often, a conflict is a result of perception. Is conflict a bad thing? Not necessarily. Often, a conflict presents opportunities for improvement. Therefore, it is important to understand (and apply) various conflict resolution techniques.
Also known as competing. An individual firmly pursues his or her own concerns despite the resistance of the other person. This may involve pushing one viewpoint at the expense of another or maintaining firm resistance to another person’s actions.
Examples of when forcing may be appropriate
Possible advantages of forcing:
Also known as problem confronting or problem solving. Collaboration involves an attempt to work with the other person to find a win-win solution to the problem in hand – the one that most satisfies the concerns of both parties. The win-win approach sees conflict resolution as an opportunity to come to a mutually beneficial result. It includes identifying the underlying concerns of the opponents and finding an alternative which meets each party’s concerns.
Examples of when collaborating may be appropriate: Continue reading
Corporate governance is a term that refers broadly to the rules, processes, or laws by which businesses are operated, regulated, and controlled. . They provide the guidelines as to how the company can be directed or controlled such that it can fulfil its goals and objectives in a manner that adds to the value of the company The term can refer to internal factors defined by the officers, stockholders or constitution of a corporation, as well as to external forces such as consumer groups, clients, and government regulations.
Well-defined and enforced corporate governance provides a structure that, at least in theory, works for the benefit of everyone concerned by ensuring that the enterprise adheres to accepted ethical standards and best practices as well as to formal laws. To that end, organizations have been formed at the regional, national, and global levels.
In recent years, corporate governance has received increased attention because of high-profile scandals involving abuse of corporate power and, in some cases, alleged criminal activity by corporate officers. An integral part of an effective corporate governance regime includes provisions for civil or criminal prosecution of individuals who conduct unethical or illegal acts in the name of the enterprise.
Emotional intelligence (EI) refers to the ability to perceive, control and evaluate emotions. It the subset of social intelligence that involves the ability to monitor one’s own and others’ feelings and emotions, to discriminate among them and to use this information to guide one’s thinking and actions. Some researchers suggest that emotional intelligence can be learned and strengthened, while others claim it is an inborn characteristic.
The Four Branches of Emotional Intelligence
Salovey and Mayer proposed a model that identified four different factors of emotional intelligence: the perception of emotion, the ability reason using emotions, the ability to understand emotion and the ability to manage emotions.
1. Perceiving Emotions: The first step in understanding emotions is to accurately perceive them. In many cases, this might involve understanding nonverbal signals such as body language and facial expressions.
2. Reasoning With Emotions: The next step involves using emotions to promote thinking and cognitive activity. Emotions help prioritize what we pay attention and react to; we respond emotionally to things that garner our attention.
3. Understanding Emotions: The emotions that we perceive can carry a wide variety of meanings. If someone is expressing angry emotions, the observer must interpret the cause of their anger and what it might mean. For example, if your boss is acting angry, it might mean that he is dissatisfied with your work; or it could be because he got a speeding ticket on his way to work that morning or that he’s been fighting with his wife.
4. Managing Emotions: The ability to manage emotions effectively is a key part of emotional intelligence. Regulating emotions, responding appropriately and responding to the emotions of others are all important aspect of emotional management.
Knowledge management enables the communication of knowledge from one person to another so that it can be used by the other person. It covers a wide range of areas that can be practiced within an organization. The fields in which knowledge concepts are deployed in organization through knowledge initiatives are:
· sharing knowledge and best practices
· instilling responsibility for sharing knowledge
· capturing and reusing best practices
· embedding knowledge in products , services and processes
· producing knowledge as a product
· driving knowledge generation for innovation
· mapping networks of experts
· building and mining customer knowledge bases
Goals and Objectives of Knowledge Management
The aim of knowledge management is to continuously improve an organization’s performance through the improvement and sharing of organizational knowledge throughout the organization (i.e., the aim is to ensure the organization has the right knowledge at the right time and place). Knowledge management is the set of proactive activities to support an organization in creating, assimilating, disseminating, and applying its knowledge. Knowledge management is a continuous process to understand the organization’s knowledge needs, the location of the knowledge, and how to improve the knowledge.
Broadly, we can put classify the goal of knowledge management into four different aspects.
· create knowledge repository
· improve knowledge assets
· enhance the knowledge environment
· manage knowledge as an asset
Knowledge Management Activities
Knowledge management consists of four basic functions: externalization, internalization, intermediation and cognition (Frappaolo, 1998):
Externalization:Externalization is capturing knowledge in an external repository and organizing it by some framework in an effort to discover similar knowledge. Technologies that support externalization are imaging systems, databases, workflow technologies, document management systems using clustering techniques, etc.
Internalization: Internalization is the process of identifying knowledge, usually explicit, relevant to a particular user’s needs. It involves mapping a particular problem, situation, or a point of interest against the body of knowledge already captured through externalization.
Intermediation: Intermediation is similar to the brokering process for matching a knowledge seeker with the best source of knowledge (usually tacit) by tracking the experience and interest of individuals and groups of individuals. Some technologies that facilitate these processes are groupware, intranets, workflow and document management systems.
Cognition: Cognition applies the knowledge exchanged preceding three processes. This is probably the knowledge management component that is most difficult to automate because it relies on human cognition to recognize where and how knowledge can be used.
In order to manage knowledge effectively in organizations, besides other factors, special attention should be given to contextual dimensions of organization such as strategy, technology and culture, that is:
· Most important is building a strong culture to adopt and support it.
· Defining effective strategies for using all knowledge resources efficiently.
· Using information technologies (digital documents, intranets, expert systems etc) for developing knowledge management systems.
Organizational Behavior Is Not Simply Common Sense
In some ways, organizational behavior is taken as a common sense. The motivation, control, teamwork seems to be a common sense in some ways. But it is more than just the common sense when it comes to the structuring of a whole organization with so many different people, and learning styles, and also the common goals and mission of the organization.
It almost becomes a management science. And it has to be treated as such. Also, the OB will have to be a little more human than plain pure hard science, which is why it cannot be treated as all fact.
Many organizations survive on the edge and the directors as well as staff think on feet to accomplish what in all good conscience they have to for upholding their companies’ agenda.
There are many books which discuss all this, in detail and there are always ideas that can help improve the work that organizations pride themselves in rendering.
Organizational behavior is a very inter disciplinary field from economics to management and even to ethics of running a corporation. The curriculum OB course include case studies from various corporations. And that provides a good sense of organizational behavior to the students at college and graduate levels.
In that sense, OB can be taught in a field work manner as well, where multiple fields come together.
So it can simply be said that OB is more than a common sense.
The nature, size and environment of the organization is not always the same to that of others. They may be unique in terms of these paramaters which may be analysed by PESTAL of SWOT analysis. Organistic and mechanistic organizations are the two models that helps in adopting the change and make the work process more efficient.
Companies facing a dynamic and uncertain environment may have to develop or maintain an organic organizational structure, whereas companies operating in a stable environment may benefit from developing or maintaining a mechanistic organizational structure.
The reason for this is that organic structures can process and distribute information and knowledge faster within the organization, which thus results in an increased ability to respond or react to changes in the environment.
However, mechanistic structures may act as an effective and efficient organizational structure for companies operating in a more stable and certain environment. Companies operating in a stable environment may not need to make decisions quickly. Likewise, many of the day-to-day decisions and operating procedures may be formalized and centralized, because there is no inherent need for constant change or innovation.
Some characteristics for each type of organizational structure are listed below: Continue reading
Organizational culture, sometimes also referred to as corporate culture, is a general term that outlines the collective attitudes, beliefs, common experiences, procedures, and values that are prevalent in an organization and others similar to it. Organizational culture is the phrase much more likely to be used within the corporate world itself, as it also affects stakeholders, who may or may not be directly involved in the daily transaction.
Organizational culture tends to be the larger shared goals and vision for a company, but that doesn’t make it the end. Within the larger organizational culture will be many smaller sub-cultures that are still dedicated to the larger picture, but have their own system of operating and working to be more efficient in their task, and their part of the larger picture. This helps to create unity and increase general worker efficiency. Organizational culture helps to establish the expected guidelines, expectations, and rules that will help the company achieve their goals.
A classic example of this would be computer tech people. Because of the extremely specialized nature of their expertise, computer technicians are likely to have their own odd behaviors, working conditions, and strategies to getting the job done. Computer language leads to a whole series of terminologies or technologies that many non computer people won’t have a clue about–but their organizational sub culture affects the larger organizational culture as a whole, for the better or worse of the company, but hopefully for the better!
There are different measures of this as well. A company or corporation that has a staff which responds strongly to organizational values and can successfully pass that on to the workers at every level are considered to be part of a “strong culture.” Inversely, if the opposite is true where overly restrictive rules, procedures, and bureaucracy are necessary to enforce the company’s vision, then that is definitely considered “weak culture.”
Weak organizational culture is a detriment to a company for obvious reasons. The extra supervision, rules, and bureaucracy cause the company to be less efficient and less effective. In addition, having these extra layers also tends to be much more expensive, which will obviously show on the bottom line. Weak cultures can not take advantage of an opportunity that demands quick, decisive action.
Strong organizational culture tends to be a good thing, but there are also some dangers that have to be watched. For one, if everyone is completely in line with the organizational culture of a company, and hold the same centralized beliefs on how the goals should be accomplished, then there is a danger of “group think.” This is where an entire group thinks in such similar terms that they lose the ability to become innovative or take a unique approach to a problem. To put it another way, they lose their ability to “think outside the box.”
Organizational culture is still necessary for any company of size, and a strong organizational culture combined with an openness to new creative ideas and problem solving can be the building blocks to something amazing.
Social loafing is the phenomenon of people exerting less effort to achieve a goal when they work in a group than when they work alone. This is seen as one of the main reasons groups are sometimes less productive than the combined performance of their members working as individuals, but should be distinguished from the coordination problems that groups sometime experience. Social loafing is also associated with two concepts that are typically used to explain why it occurs: The “free-rider” theory and the resulting “sucker effect”, which is an individual’s reduction in effort in order to avoid pulling the weight of a fellow group member.
Research on social loafing began with rope pulling experiments by Ringelmann, who found that members of a group tended to exert less effort into pulling a rope than did individuals alone. In more recent research, studies involving modern technology, such as online and distributed groups, has also shown clear evidence of social loafing. Many of the causes of social loafing stem from an individual feeling that his or her effort will not matter to the group. Therefore, effective ways to reduce social loafing involve increasing the motivation of individual group members or improving their coordination.
New Baneshwor is one of the major junctions and also known as the heart of the Kathmandu Valley. This place consists of all the major educational institution, hospitals, a wide range of market, and most important, “constitutional assembly” of the country. So it is one of the busiest places of Kathmandu valley. The vehicle in the road always seems to be crowded and the volume is higher in the peak hour. As a result, there is a high traffic jam and the vehicle needs a long period of time to cross this spot. Motor bikes are always in a hurry to overtake and sometimes they even capture the footpath designed for pedestrians. It is always hard to cross the road in this area and sometimes it takes more than 5 minutes. Traffic police always seems busy in managing the flow of vehicles. Although there are more number of traffic police deployed, road accidents are also frequently occurring in this area.
Road is the common place of all the people. All the people can exercise equal right and has equal responsibility upon it. It is a myth that there is a severe traffic problem in New Baneshwor. It can be clearly seen by different consequences like a huge number of peoples crossing the road and a long queue of vehicles waiting to pass the point. The narrow road, unmanaged parking and footpath business, and the absence of Sky Bridge are some of the reasons unmanaged traffic in New Baneshwor. This section of study tries to find out the problem and respective solution of traffic problem from three different perspectives. Different ideas of problems and solutions of traffic are collected from these three different angles and a combined view is developed.
1.1 Background of study
It was the time when I was returning back to home from my college, the time was already 6:50. Since I live in Minbhawan, I have to pass New Baneshwor chowk to reach that point. I felt a sense of inconvenience by the unmanaged footpath business which made me difficult to walk. When I reached new Baneshwor Chowk, the situation was much more miserable. There was intense flow of traffic on the road with annoying horns. Vehicles were seemed to be in hurry and were trying to overtake each other. On the other hand, there were more than 200 peoples on each side of the road waiting for the signal of police officer to cross the road. Since I was with my friends, we talked on the same issue of traffic jams in this spot. And when the traffic police signaled to cross the road, there was a flow of peoples on the road.
This picture was imprisoned in my mind till night. Then I thought of why not to make a small study revealing the problems of New Baneshwor that induce traffic jam. Then I tried to collect the problems and recommendations from three different angles of pedestrians, passengers or vehicles owners and police officer. So this report is the blend of view of different angles of traffic jam of New Baneshwor. Continue reading
Assessment of External Environment
Forces and condition outside the organization that affects the performance and outcome of the business organization is the External environment of the business organization. The control of external environmental factors is out of the hand of business organization. Analysis of external environment depicts the opportunities and threats to business organization. External environment consist of different factors such as political, economic, socio-cultural, technological, legal and environmental. In short we can say as PESTLE Analysis
Politically, it will not be wrong to say that Nepal is in the state of the transition phase. So the political instability seems to be normal during this period. All the sectors in the economy are more or less affected by it, and Ncell also can’t remain unaffected. The major areas that are affected by the political system is in terms of new investment and direct restriction of the authority body.NTA is the regulating body of telecommunication sector in the country. Since the largest telecommunication house, NTC is state owned body; NTA always makes laws in favor of NTC. Due to this factor, private sector like Ncell is facing the trouble of game of politics. The most relevant example is the price factor. Although Ncell is trying to reduce the service tariff, it is unable to reduce due to the restrictions made by NTA. Apart from that, unclear rules and regulations and the less reactive bureaucrats is also the political problem for Ncell. For example, due to the unclear government policy, Ncell is forced to keep its highly precious machines in the duty office Tatopani since 4 months.
Although the economy in the world is shrinking, the disposable income of the people in Nepal is increasing. The inflow of remittance in the country is directly helping in this prospect. The number of people using the cellular mobile phone is increasing day by day. Furthermore, the inflow of Chinese mobile phones at the low cost is also helping people to enjoy the services of mobile technology. Hence in Nepal, the economic environment seems to be favorable. Continue reading
a. Part of TeliaSonera: TeliaSonera holds about 80% shares of Ncell. It is a strong and competitive group, which has high pool of resources. Ncell gains a lot of advantage from the parent company in terms of knowledge/technology sharing, fully leveraging benefits of scale and synergy through business strategy and network building techniques.
b. Largest market share: Ncell is the largest telecom service provider (GSM), having 43% market share. It has crossed more than 80 lakhs customer. Besides, it is also a leading ISP in Nepal.
c. Strong Distribution Network: With the equal distribution of customer all over Nepal, it has established 14 Ncell centre in the major cities of the country that gives full phase customer service. Besides, there are hundreds of Ncell shops all over the country.
d. Brand Identity: Strong advertisements and promotions of Ncell are one of its biggest strength. It has ample resources to invest in its branding. Every new scheme it offers increases the sales of Ncell. Thus, it is a strong brand identity. Today, from a 10-year-old child to 70-year-old grand-papa; everyone is aware of the brand “Ncell”, especially with the purple color.
e. Highly Skilled human resource: The ability to attract the best talent in the market & to retain it has become one of the key factors of Ncell’s success. Currently Ncell have an efficient manpower of more than 500 employees.
f. Innovation: Innovation is another strong aspect of Ncell. It has been growing itself and always succeeded to bring new and innovative product to the markets for its consumers. Ncell connect is once such innovative product introduced by Ncell.
g. Strong R&D: Ncell has built on its R&D under TeliaSonera. R&D technology centers of TeliaSonera in various parts of the world have highly qualified scientists and technologists. With the strong support from TeliaSonera R&D as well as the brand development capabilities, the company is well placed to meet the challenges arising from the increased competition intensity.
a. High Advertising Costs: Ncell is been paying high cost for its advertising agency. There is a significant increase in the advertising budget. Continue reading
Netflix is currently the largest online DVD rental company in the US. The company offers a prepaid plan for customers to rent DVDs online and have the DVDs mailed to them in envelopes. Since the inception of the company, Netflix has been constantly trying to improve itself on a few fronts of the business in order to better position the company to its partners and most importantly, its customers. Moreover, the company faces tough competition not only from traditional video rental stores, but also other online video rental companies. On top of that, Netflix has a huge rivalry with Blockbuster, the largest video rental chain in the US. In recent times, Netflix has also been facing the threats of online video and Video-on-Demand (VOD), and are currently looking into the possibility of entering this space. As being a rental service provider, it generates the revenue mainly from the subscription fee. Netflix has earned the huge revenue of $493.7 million in 2011(according to a survey of 25 analysts polled by FactSet Research). It is planning to expand its business into 43different countries with the full phase service.
Netflix has implemented the effective CRM (Cinematch) and SCM (Stevens 2005) in the business process to tap the environmental opportunities and create a competitive advantage in the industry.
Netflix’s current business model is very technology intensive but only has a simple concept of operation attached to it. The main idea was for Netflix to offer convenient access to movies. Customers subscribe for a fee through the website and they can start adding movies to their “wish” list and recommendations for movies are even provided based on individual customer preferences. Customers can view videos and TV shows in not only from laptops and TV but also from the smart devices like iPad and iPhone. The major software supported by Netflix are Microsoft Windows, Mac OS X, Android including the HTC Incredible(2.2), Samsung Nexus S(2.3), Motorola Droid(2.2), LG Revolution(2.2), Commando C771(2.2), and Archos32 Internet Tablet(2.2), iOS iPad, iPhone, iPod Touch, Apple TV.
Hence, Netflix have been doing the traditional type of business differently with the help of e-commerce and able to add value to the customer and its other stakeholders. Continue reading
Forces and condition within the organization that affects the performance and outcomes is internal environment of the organization. It defines the scope and boundary of the business organization. These forces within the organization are controllable by the organization. Analysis of Internal environment depicts the strengths and weakness of the organization.
After all being the government organization, strategy in NTC is to reach and retain its customer more broadly. NTC is trying to install better management softwares to handle its cross functional areas. With focus on its management NTC are about to have an Enterprise Resource Planning to improve its management of man, machine and material to have better satisfied customers.
NTC is also reducing cost for customer and staying competitive in the market. To counter the competitors strategy and techniques of attracting customer, NTC, without lagging behind are working on providing services in lower cost, customer friendly and new schemes and features.
Without forgetting that the NTC is government organization, for the people working and about to work in the organization obviously have the presence of prestige and security. Being the largest profit earning government organization, here the employees believe that their job is secure and satisfactory.
With the good sense of security and prestige, NTC is also facing various problems in the organization. The organization is encountering the hitch of overstaffing and human resource management. The employees in the organization are not well updated with the technology and trends in telecommunication. Company cannot train all of them and also it is hard to fire them. Cost of training to employees is very much high and it is difficult to recruit the employees in right place. Though new technologies are emerging in NTC, employees and the management are quite traditional and persist resistant to change. It is complicated to build the confidence and change the attitude of employees in the organization for new technologies and trends.
Mostly, the company is owned by government. The very large portion of share is of government of 91.49%. There is very less amount of shares of general public. With the good performance of the company, earning per share of NTC is growing comparing to last year. Therefore the NTC is providing healthy dividend amounts to its shareholders.
Outstanding Number of Shares
Government of Nepal
Citizen Investment trust